I. Denuclearization Cooperation with the Former Soviet Countries
1. Necessity of Cooperation
(1) After the end of the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union had several arms control and disarmament agreements including START I (Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty I) of July 1991. However, as a result of the collapse of the Soviet Union in December 1991, it became clear that elimination of the weapons of mass destruction (WMD) remaining in the former Soviet countries (Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Belarus) was a matter of pressing importance.
(2) Under normal circumstances, Russia and other former Soviet countries should have implemented measures toward elimination and nonproliferation of nuclear weapons by themselves, but these countries' efforts were hindered by circumstances such as economic and social disorder arising from the adoption of a market economy. In this context, these issues became of paramount concern to international security.
(3) In April 1993, at the G7 (Group of seven industrial countries) Joint Ministerial Meeting on assistance to Russia held prior to the Tokyo Summit, Prime Minister Miyazawa (the head of state at that time) announced Japan's commitment to provide US$100 million for denuclearization in the former Soviet countries. Then, at the Cologne Summit in June 1999, Prime Minister Obuchi (the head of state at that time) pledged funds amounting to US$200 million, which included the remaining funds of the 1993 commitment, to further promote the cooperation.
2. G8 Global Partnership
(1) At the Kananaskis Summit in Canada on June 26 and 27, 2002, the G8 (Group of eight industrial countries) leaders launched the "G8 Global Partnership against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction" and agreed on measures, initially in Russia, to address nonproliferation, disarmament, counter-terrorism, and nuclear safety issues. Specifically, these measures are the destruction of chemical weapons, the dismantlement of decommissioned nuclear submarines, the disposition of fissile materials, and the employment of former weapon scientists.
Note: The G8 is composed of the eight major industrial countries in the world: Japan, United States, United Kingdom, Germany, France, Italy, Canada and Russia; and also with the participation of the European Union, which has a limited status.
(2) The G8 committed to manage up to US$20 billion over the next 10 years (to 2012) for these projects. As of October 2003 the United States pledged US$10 billion, Russia US$2 billion, Germany 1.5 billon euros, Italy 1 billon euros, the EU 1 billon euros, France 750 million euros, Canada 1 billon Canadian dollars, and the UK US$750 million. Japan has pledged over US$200 million, of which more than US$100 million is allocated to the dismantlement of decommissioned nuclear submarines and the other 100 million dollars to the disposition of surplus plutonium.
(3) The G8 asked other countries to participate in the Global Partnership, and at the Evian Summit held in June 2003, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Switzerland, Poland and Holland offered to join. Later at the Sea Island Summit held in June 2004, Australia, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Ireland, Korea and New Zealand joined too. Australia contributed 10 million Australian dollars (approximately US$7 million) in June 2004, to the Committee on Cooperation to Assist the Destruction of Nuclear Weapons Reduced in the Russian Federation, for implementation of projects relating to the dismantlement of nuclear submarines in the Russian Far East.
II. Japan's Denuclearization Cooperation
1. The Significance of Cooperation
(1) As the only country to have suffered atomic bombings, Japan strongly advocates the abolition of nuclear weapons and considers it most important to take a "realistic and incremental" approach toward nuclear disarmament to realize a peaceful and safe nuclear-free world. For this reason, every year since 1994 Japan had presented to the First Committee of the General Assembly UN (United Nations) the draft resolutions entitled "Nuclear Disarmament with a view to the Ultimate Elimination of Nuclear Weapons." After the UN Millennium General Assembly in 2000, Japan presented the resolution, "A Path to the Total Elimination of Nuclear Weapons," which was adopted by an overwhelming majority of the member countries. Japan's cooperation for denuclearization in the Former Soviet Union is in agreement with these resolutions of the UN.
(2) Denuclearization cooperation includes various initiatives such as the dismantlement of nuclear warheads and their transport means, prevention and control of environmental pollution during dismantlement operations, and military to civilian conversion. Japan has principally collaborated in areas related to the environment, safeguards, medical treatment, and support for the military to civilian conversion, areas where Japan can make good use of its technology and know-how as a non-nuclear nation. In addition, the safe dismantlement of decommissioned nuclear submarines moored in the Russian Far East is especially important as the issue directly affects Japan's interests. Paying particular attention to the preservation of environment and fishing resources in the Sea of Japan, Japan has been actively cooperating in the dismantlement program.
At the Japan-Russia summit meeting in January 2003, Prime Minister Koizumi and President Putin specified dismantlement of nuclear submarines in the Russian Far East as one of the priority tasks in the cooperative efforts between the two countries. Prime Minister Koizumi named this project "Star of Hope" after the Zvezda Shipyard, where the dismantlement of submarines takes place. ("Zvezda" means "star" in Russian.)
(3) The denuclearization cooperation with Russia, mainly the dismantlement of nuclear submarines, has great significance in the current relationship between Japan and Russia. In 2005 the two countries celebrated the 150th anniversary of establishment of diplomatic relations, and as Japan and Russia are neighboring countries sharing the Sea of Japan between them, it is necessary to forge a strong partnership that will guide us in the 21st century. In addition, the denuclearization cooperation with Russia makes great contributions to the promotion of the Japan-Russia bilateral relations through the mutual understanding and confidence building between the peoples of the two countries.
2. Conclusion of Bilateral Agreements
To realize denuclearization cooperation projects in the former Soviet states, Japan signed the following bilateral agreements with Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Belarus (to March 1994).
(1) Japan - Russia
"AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT OF JAPAN AND THE GOVERNMENT OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION CONCERNING THE COOPERATION TO ASSIST THE DESTRUCTION OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS REDUCED IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A COMMITTEE ON THIS COOPERATION"
(Tentative translation: The authentic texts are only in Japanese and Russian.) (Signed and in effect on October 13, 1993)
(2) Japan - Ukraine
"AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT OF JAPAN AND THE GOVERNMENT OF UKRAINE CONCERNING COOPERATION FOR THE ELIMINATION OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS REDUCED IN UKRAINE AND ESTABLISHMENT OF A COMMITTEE ON THIS COOPERATION"
(Signed on March 2, 1994 and in effect on March 11, 1994)
(3) Japan - Kazakhstan
"AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT OF JAPAN AND THE GOVERNMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN CONCERNING COOPERATION FOR THE DESTRUCTION OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS REDUCED IN THE REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN AND THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A COMMITTEE ON THIS COOPERATION"
(Signed and in effect on March 11, 1994)
(4) Japan - Belarus
"AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT OF JAPAN AND THE GOVERNMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS CONCERNING COOPERATION FOR THE NON-PROLIFERATION OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS AND ESTABLISHMENT OF A COMMITTEE ON THIS COOPERATION" (Tentative translation: The authentic texts are only in Japanese and Russian.)
(Signed and in effect on November 5, 1993)
3. Executive Organizations for the Cooperation
(1) In accordance with the above-mentioned bilateral agreements, Japan and related countries have established the following Committees to implement the denuclearization cooperation:
- the Committee on Cooperation to Assist the Destruction of Nuclear Weapons Reduced in the Russian Federation (hereafter referred to as "Japan-Russia Committee")
- the Committee on Cooperation for the Elimination of Nuclear Weapons Reduced in Ukraine (hereafter referred to as "Japan-Ukraine Committee")
- the Committee on Cooperation for the Destruction of Nuclear Weapons Reduced in the Republic of Kazakhstan (hereafter referred to as "Japan-Kazakhstan Committee")
- the Committee on Cooperation for the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (hereafter referred to as "Japan-Belarus Committee")
(2) Each Committee is composed of a Governing Council and a Technical Secretariat. Only the Japan-Russia Committee has an Executive Task Force, which is a subsidiary body of the Governing Council set up for strengthening implementing mechanisms of the cooperation.
(3) Each Governing Council is composed of representatives from Japan and the corresponding country. The Japanese side is represented by its ambassador to the country, and his counterpart is from the relevant ministry of the corresponding country. The Governing Council decides the priority of cooperation projects and the implementation of specific programs. The representatives as of March, 2012 are as follows:
|Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to the Russian Federation||Chikahito HARADA|
|Director of Directorate for Nuclear and Radiation Safety,|
State Atomic Energy Corporation "ROSATOM"
|Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to Ukraine||Toichi SAKATA|
|Director of the Department for Euro-Atlantic Cooperation, Armaments Control and Military and Technical Cooperation of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine||Oleksandr ALEKSANDROVYCH|
|Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to Kazakhstan||Yuzo HARADA|
|Chairman of the Committee of the Atomic Energy, Ministry of Industry and New Technologies||Timur ZHANTIKIN|
|Charge d'affaires ad interim in Belarus||Shigehiro MIMORI|
|Head of International Security and Arms Control Department, Ministry of Foreign Affairs||Vladimir GERASIMOVICH|
(4) It was decided in February 2003 to establish an Executive Task Force to act as a subsidiary body of the Governing Council in order to accelerate implementation of projects initiated by the Japan-Russia Committee. It is composed of a Coordinator, a Deputy Coordinator and other members from both Japan and Russia. The Coordinators from Japan and Russia are as follows:
|Director of Arms Control and Disarmament Division, Disarmament, Non-Proliferation and Science Department, Ministry of Foreign Affairs||Kensuke YOSHIDA|
|Program Manager “Comprehensive Decommissioning of Nuclear Submarines”, State Corporation "ROSATOM"||Anatory ZAHARCHEV|
(5) The Technical Secretariat manages administrative work on the Committee's funds, etc., as per the instructions of the Governing Council. Each agreement with the above-mentioned 4 countries stipulates the establishment of a Technical Secretariat, however, the Technical Secretariat on Cooperation for the Elimination of Nuclear Weapons Reduced in the Former Soviet Union (general name) was established on January 10, 1994 as a body having the combined functions of the Technical Secretariat for the 4 Committees, and has functioned in this way since.
|Technical Secretariat on Cooperation for the Elimination of Nuclear Weapons Reduced in the Former Soviet Union Secretary-general||Hajime SASAKI|
(6) The following figure shows the cooperation mechanism, including the structure of each Committee and relationships between Japan and her counterpart. The Japanese relevant authority for each bilateral Agreement is the Ministry of Foreign Affairs through the Arms Control and Disarmament Division, Disarmament, Non-Proliferation and Science Department.
4. Report of Cooperation
To date Japan has participated in the following projects in the 4 former Soviet countries: Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and Belarus.
(1) Construction of a low-level liquid radioactive waste treatment plant, "Suzuran" (4,150 million yen, completed in November 2001)
(2) Support for the dismantlement of nuclear submarines (Program for Dismantling Decommissioned Nuclear Submarines "Star of Hope") (Dismantlement of a Victor III class nuclear submarine: 790 million yen, completed in December 2004)
(1) Assistance to safeguard-related projects (530 million yen, completed in April 2000) (Provision of a nuclear material protection system to guard against unlawful entry and physical contact, etc.)
(2) The first supply of medical equipment (590 million yen, completed in May 1997)
(3) The second supply of medical equipment (390 million yen, completed in August 1998)
(4) The third supply of medical equipment (90 million yen, completed in April 2000)
(5) The fourth supply of medical equipment (310 million yen, completed in June 2001)
(1) Assistance to safeguard-related projects (540 million yen, completed in October 1998)
(2) Provision of an ESR (Electric Spin Resonance; to measure the level of radioactivity found in the teeth of people exposed to radiation) (90 million yen, completed in February 1997)
(3) Supply of medical equipment (450 million yen, completed in October 1997)
(4) Assistance for the establishment of a remote medical diagnostic system (70 million yen, completed in August 1999)
(1) Assistance to safeguard-related projects (240 million yen, completed in December 2000)
(2) Supply of training equipment for the Vocational Training Center for Retired Military Personnel (310 million yen, completed in February 1999)
5. Cooperation Projects
Please refer to a country's link for an outline of cooperation projects.